The whey proteins of milk or WP are a mixture of proteins isolated from whey, the liquid substance created as a byproduct of cheese production. The whey proteins are regularly sold and taken as a dietary supplement.
They are divided generally into three major forms: concentrate (WPC), isolate (WPI) and hydrolyzate (WPH).
The whey isolate (WPI) is the purest form of whey because they contain lower amounts of moisture, fat, and lactose compared to the concentrated. The WPI undergo more elaborate processes, so as to obtain a powder more pure. Among these processes, there may be a greater filtration, cross flow microfiltration (CFM) or ion exchange (IE). These methods allow to obtain formulations with a content between 85 to 95% protein and a high biological value.
THE BENEFITS OF WHEY PROTEIN
The whey proteins, in the form of concentrates, isolates and hydrolysates, are the best choice for the following reasons:
• The amino acid composition is very similar to the proteins of skeletal muscle, providing almost all the amino acids in equal proportions. The whey protein has a high biological value of 104 proteins with a value of more than 100 provide all the necessary amino acids in the right ratio.
• More than 1/4 of whey proteins are composed of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), which in turn constitute 1/3 of muscle protein. BCAAs are important because, unlike the other essential amino acids, they are metabolized directly into muscle tissue and are the first amino acids used during periods of exercise; exert an anti-catabolic effect reducing protein degradation and protecting the muscle tissue. When present in abundance, can be converted by muscle cells and burned as energy. In this way we preserve glycogen stores and improve endurance. BCAA promote nitrogen retention, facilitating the maintenance of adequate levels of nitrogen to avoid the loss of muscle mass.
• Studies have shown that poor or uneven quality of whey protein, supplied from supply, may increase the loss of nitrogen and limit muscle protein synthesis, caused by inefficient use of essential amino acids.
• More than half of the protein in the serum is made up of essential amino acids.
• Approximately 12% of the whey protein is made by the leucine, an essential BCAA, which is important in the metabolism of proteins and as a stimulus to initiate the synthesis of muscle protein.
• Whey proteins are more rapidly absorbed from the digestive system. The absorption of other proteins, such as casein, may be slowed by acid coagulation in the stomach.
• The bioactive components act synergistically with calcium to attenuate lipogenesis, accelerate lipolysis and nutritive effect between adipose tissue and skeletal muscle.
• Whey protein is rich in glutamine, considered ‘conditionally essential’ during periods of intense training.
• The whey proteins of milk are a rich source of bioavailable cysteine, with concentration 3-4 times superior to other protein sources, including soy and casein. Cysteine plays a key role in the synthesis of glutathione, the main antioxidant in the defense of our body. The intense training can give rise to an increased production of free radicals and can compromise the immune system: all that promotes the loss of muscle tissue.
• Many athletes complain of repeated infections and gastrointestinal disorders. Individual amino acids and bioactive compounds present in the whey may improve immune function and gastrointestinal health. 
• The hydrolysed whey protein to provide a readily available source of tri peptide fractions, source of protein for rapid absorption and low allergenicity.
• Whey proteins provide an advantage in taste. They can easily be flavored and sweetened.
• The whey protein is highly soluble and easy to replenish. This makes them perfect for ready-to-drink mix.
• There are no documented side effects or risk of overdose, provided that a person has an allergy to milk protein and is lactose intolerant.